It is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure used to evaluate the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a small scope in the body, often but not necessarily through a natural body opening. Through the scope, one is able to see lesions.

An instrument may not only provide an image but also enable taking small biopsies and retrieve foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery.

Many endoscopic procedures are relatively painless and only associated with mild discomfort, though patients are sedated for most procedures. Complications are rare but may include perforation of the organ under inspection with the endoscope or biopsy instrument. If this occurs, surgery may be required to repair the injury.

Types of Endoscopic

  • The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract):
    Esophagus, stomach and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)
    Colon (colonoscopy), the endoscope is used to examine the colon.
    Sigmoid colon: (proctosigmoidoscopy)
  • In an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), an endoscope is used to introduce radiographic contrast medium into the bile ducts so they can be visualized on x-ray.
  • The respiratory tract
  • The nose (rhinoscopy)
  • The lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy)
  • The urinary tract (cystoscopy)
  • The female reproductive system
  • The uterus (hysteroscopy)
  • The Fallopian tubes (Falloscopy)
  • Normally closed body cavities (through a small incision):
  • The abdominal or pelvic cavity (laparoscopy)
  • The interior of a joint (arthroscopy)
  • Organs of the chest (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy)
  • During pregnancy
  • The amnion (amnioscopy)
  • The fetus (fetoscopy)

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