Combining Forms

Mentioned below are some combining forms that a transcriptionist frequently comes across through. Understanding the meaning of these combining words helps in relating to the condition that they point to.

 

acous/o: hearing
acromi/o: acromion
aden/o: gland
adip/o: fat
adren/o, adrenal/o: adrenal glands
alveol/o: alveolus
amni/a: amniotic sac
andr/o: male
angi/o: vessel
ankyl/o: stiffness, bent
anthrac/o: coal or carbon
aort/a: aorta
arteri/o: artery
arthr/a: joint
atel/o: incomplete
ather/o: plaque
atri/o: atrium
audi/o: hearing
balan/o: glans penis
blephar/o: eyelid
brachi/o: arm
bronch/o: bronchus
bronchi/o: bronchi
calc/a: calcium
calcane/o: calcaneum (heel bone)
cardi/o: heart
carp/o: carpus (wrist bone)
cepha1/o: head
cerebr/o: cerebrum
cervic/o: cervix
cervic/o: neck
chol/e: bile, gall
cholecyst/o: gallbladder
chondr/o: cartilage
co1/o: colon (large intestine)
colp/o: vagina
condy1/o: condyle
coni/o: dust
corne/o: cornea
cast/o: ribs
crani/o: cranium (skull)
crypt/o: hidden
cutane/o: skin
cyst/a: bladder
dacry/o: tear, lacrimal
dacty1/o: digits of finger or toe
dent/o: teeth
derm/o: skin
dermat/o: skin
dipl/o: double
duoden/o: duodenum
electr/o: electric
encephal/o: brain
enter/o: intestine
epididym/o: epididymis
episi/o: vulva
erythr/o: red
esophag/o: esophagus
femor/o: femur (thigh bone)
fibu1/s: fibula (smaller, outer bone of the lower leg)
galact/o: milk
gastr/o: stomach
gingiv/o: gum
gli/o: glue, neuroglia
glomerul/o: glomerulus
gluc/o, glyc/o: glucose, sugar
gonad/o: gonads, sex glands
gynec/o: female, woman
hem/o: blood
hemat/o: blood
hepat/o: liver
hidr/o: sweat
humer/o: humerus
hydr/o: water
ichthy/o: dry, scaly
ile/o: ileum (third part of the small intestine)
ili/o: ilium (broad flaring portion of the hip bone)
immun/o: safe
irid/o: iris
ischi/o: lower portion of the hip bone
kerat/o: cornea
kerat/o: hardening
labi/o: lip
lact/o: milk
lapar/o: abdomen
laryng/o: throat
leiomy/o: smooth muscle
leuk/o: white
ligu/o: tongue
lip/o: fat
lith/o: stone
lob/o: lobe
lumb/o: lower back, loin
lymph/o: lymph
lymphang/o: lymph vessel
mamm/o: breast
mast/o: breast
megal/o: enlargement
men/o: menstruation
mening/o, meningi/o: meninges
metacarp/o: metacarpus (bones of the hand)
metr/o: uterus
my/o: muscle
myc/o: fungus
myel/o: spinal cord, bone marrow
myring/o: tympanic membrane
nas/o: nose
nat/o: birth
necr/o: necrosis
nephr/o: kidney
neur/o: nerve, nervous system
noct/o: night
ocul/o: eye
odont/o: teeth
onych/o: nail
oophor/o: ovary
ophthaln1/o: eye
or/o: mouth
orch/o: testis
orchi/o: testis
orchid/o: testis
orth/o: straighten
ortho/o: straight
oste/o: bone
ot/o: ear
ovari/o: ovary
ox/o: oxygen
pancreat/o: pancreas
parathyroid/o: parathyroid glands
patell/o: patella (knee cap)
pector/o: chest
ped/o, pod/o: foot
pelv/i: pelvis
phag/o: eat, swallow
phalang/o: phalanges (bones of digits of hands and toes)
pharynglo: pharynx
phleb/o: vein
phren/o: diaphragm, mind, phrenic nerve
pil/o: hair
pleur/a: pleura
presby/a: old age
proct/a: rectum and anus
prostat/o: prostate
pub/a: pubis (part of hip bone)
pyel/o: renal pelvis
rachi/o: spine
radi/o: radiation, x-rays
rect/o: rectum
nen/o: kidney
rhabd/a: rod-shaped
rhabdomy/o: rad-shaped striated muscle
rhin/o: nose
roentgen/o: x-rays
sacr/o: sacrum
salpinglo: eustachian tube
salpinglo: fallopian tube, uterine tube
scler/o: hardening
scler/o: sclera

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